Cardiometabolism Research and Advance Science Activities in India

One of India's fastest-growing knowledge-based industries is research science conferences. It is increasingly being used today to design and develop improved varieties of pharmaceuticals, Medicare, medications, a wide range of drugs, cosmetics, growth enhancers, health care aides, and medicine-related substances.

On a global scale, India's biotech sector is making rapid progress. In India, many therapeutic biotech drugs and vaccines are currently manufactured and marketed. In 2005-2006, the Indian biotech sector generated impressive revenue of approximately US$ 1.07 billion, representing a 36.55 percent increase.

The Cardiology Conferences 2022 of India are diverse. It can assist in converting resources into jobs and wealth. A variety of factors motivate India to develop world-class medical abilities.

A huge quantity of scientific resources, affordable manufacturing functionality, numerous medical colleges, educational and training institutes offer medical conferences on a large number of rapidly developing clinical capabilities, and thriving drugs and pharmaceutical industries.


Cardiology, Diabetology, and Nephrology

Cardiology is a branch of medicine dealing with cardiac diseases as well as some parts of the circulatory system. Medical diagnosis and treatment of congenital heart defects, coronary artery disease, heart failure, valvular heart disease, and electrocardiography are all part of the field. Cardiologists are internal medicine specialists who specialize in this field of medicine.

Diabetes is a metabolic disease in which a person's blood sugar level is permanently elevated. Diabetology is a medical-scientific discipline that focuses on the study and treatment of all types of diabetes. Diagnosis and treatment of all types of diabetes are the responsibilities of the diabetologist. They also treat diseases that are closely related to diabetes, such as lipid metabolism disturbances, severe obesity, and high blood pressure.

Nephrology is a specialized area of internal medicine that deals with kidneys. It is concerned with kidney function diagnosis, treatment, and management, as well as renal (kidney) replacement therapy such as dialysis and kidney transplantation. Nephrologists treat systemic conditions such as diabetes and autoimmune disease, as well as hypertension (high blood pressure) and electrolyte imbalances.

Our "Cardio-Metabolic Congress" provides a good global framework for Cardiology, Diabetology, and Nephrology professionals by coordinating and engaging gatherings from all over the world in a wide range of discussions on innovative advancements to advance the medicaments of heart and vascular conditions.


Internal Medicine and Metabolic Disease Research in India

Cardiovascular and Metabolic Diseases (CVD) remain the number one cause of death worldwide.

In recent decades there have been remarkable reductions in death from cardiovascular diseases, largely due to a decreased prevalence of smoking and modern science that has led to effective therapies for hypertension and high cholesterol. Even so, cardiovascular diseases (CVD) remain the number one cause of death worldwide.


The modern lifestyle has promoted a new array of cardiovascular risk factors…

CVD continues as an epidemic, driven by a number of factors, including the rising rates of obesity and its resulting metabolic diseases, such as type 2 diabetes mellitus and the metabolic syndrome, which refers to the group of risk factors that increase an individual’s risk for heart disease and other health problems.2 The modern lifestyle has promoted a new array of cardiovascular risk factors, but treatments for these have remained elusive. We believe that a comprehensive program is needed to address the collection of diseases of the cardiovascular system, as well as their root causes, including obesity and metabolic disease.

We now understand obesity leads to diabetes, and diabetes in turn increases the risk of heart failure and other types of heart disease. In fact, more than two-thirds of people age 65 or older with diabetes die from some form of heart disease.3 Another significant area of unmet need that reflects the global dysmetabolic state is non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). NASH is preceded by an abnormal accumulation of lipid in the liver, a condition that is associated with obesity and insulin resistance and is estimated to impact as many as 30% of all adults in the US.4 Ultimately, NASH can lead to liver fibrosis, cirrhosis and eventually liver failure5 or cancer6, and has no approved treatment.

With costly hospitalizations on the rise, economists project that failure to properly invest in prevention and treatment could cost as much as $47 trillion worldwide by 2036.


Pfizer is focused on investigating potential therapies that treat both the metabolic abnormalities that increase the likelihood of cardiovascular disease and the heart itself…

For more than 50 years, Pfizer has led the way in redefining the management of cardiovascular risk by bringing much-needed treatments to patients. Today, Pfizer is focused on investigating potential therapies that treat both the metabolic abnormalities that increase the likelihood of cardiovascular disease and the heart itself by trying to alter the way it responds to the abnormal metabolic state. This includes more targeted potential therapies, as well as possible therapies that are a combination of two or more drugs, which could bring additional benefits to patients. Our early discovery efforts focus on emerging areas of CV research such as control of eating disorders, type 2 diabetes/muscle uptake of glucose and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease/non-alcoholic steatohepatitis.


Two of Pfizer’s collaborations in cardiovascular disease focus on DNA technology…

LITMUS

Liver Investigation: Testing Marker Utility in Steatohepatitis (LITMUS) is an Innovative Medicines Initiative (IMI2) project that brings together clinicians and academics from prominent academic centers across Europe with companies from the European Federation of Pharmaceutical Industries and Associations (EFPIA). Pfizer is the lead EFPIA partner, working with Newcastle University, the Project Coordinator, as well as the other consortium participants on improved diagnostic tests and imaging techniques to assess the severity of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in patients, and identify those most at risk of developing non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH).


WAVE Life Sciences (WAVE)

A research, license and option agreement for the potential development of nucleic acid therapies aimed at addressing the underlying causes of debilitating metabolic diseases. This collaboration focuses on genetically defined targets and utilizes WAVE’s and Pfizer’s respective unique techniques and capabilities to develop optimized therapeutics, which can be delivered to the liver to affect the expression of specific genes and potentially modify the course of metabolic liver diseases.


Research in Cardio Metabolism

Prevalence and risk factors for metabolic syndrome in Asian Indians

Prevalence and risk factors for metabolic syndrome in Asian Indians

Metabolic syndrome refers to a cluster of various interrelated cardiometabolic risk factors that promote the development of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD) and Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).[1] It is now well known that metabolic syndrome is a risk factor for increased cardiovascular mortality and morbidity. Current definitions of metabolic syndrome differ and cardiovascular risk appears to differ according to which component risk factors present.

Insulin resistance was observed to be there in nearly 30% of Asian Indian children and adolescents and many exhibit features of metabolic syndrome. Since metabolic syndrome and obesity track into adulthood, these clinical entities need to be recognized early in the life-course for effective prevention of T2DM and CVD.

Asian Indians have an increased prevalence of coronary heart disease (CHD) and T2DM amongst all ethnic groups. This Asian Indian or South Asian Paradox refers to the fact that high prevalence of diabetes is seen in people originating from South Asian nations of Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka, despite lower rates of obesity (as defined by conventional body-mass-index criteria).South Asians also seem to have a peculiar body phenotype known as South Asian Phenotype, characterized by increased waist circumference, increased waist hip ratio, excessive body fat mass, increased plasma insulin levels and insulin resistance, as well as an atherogenic dyslipidemia, with low levels of HDL cholesterol and increased triglyceride levels. All such factors predispose South Asians not only to T2DM but also to premature CHD. In addition, unique genetic markers could potentially make South Asians more susceptible to cardiometabolic risks.

This was a cross-sectional population survey and the study population was selected using a multistage random sampling technique. Details of study methodology have been published elsewhere. In brief, the sampling frame constituted 37 electoral wards spread across the urban population of Berhampur city of Orissa state in Eastern India. A total of 1178 subjects who are 20 years of age finally participated in this study out of 1200 eligible subjects from an estimated population of 307,724 in 2001. Demographic, socioeconomic, and self-reported behavioral information (smoking, alcohol, physical activity, and diet), objective measures of anthropometry (height, weight, waist, and hip circumferences), biochemical (plasma glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides, and HDL cholesterol levels), and electrocardiographic data were collected from all study participants.

A very high prevalence rate of 43.2 % (n = 509) of metabolic syndrome was reported in this community. In this study, metabolic syndrome rates are significantly higher among females with 52.2% (n = 307) than in males at 34.2% (n = 202). Further age-standardized prevalence rates of metabolic syndrome were 33.5% overall, 24.9 % in males and 42.3% in females.

Age-specific and age-standardized prevalence of metabolic syndrome subjects

Age Total Study Subject (NO) Metabolic Syndrome Subject (%)
In Years Males Females Total Males Females Total
20 - 29 68 81 149 2 (2.9) 8 (9.9) 10 (6.7)
30 - 39 108 145 253 24 (22.2) 50 (34.5) 74 (29.3)
40 - 49 145 153 298 44 (30.3) 87 (56.9) 131 (43.9)
50 - 59 137 118 255 64 (46.7) 87 (73.7) 151 (52.9)
60 - 69 87 67 154 46 (52.9) 55 (82.1) 101 (65.6)
70 - 79 38 21 59 20 (52.6) 18 (85.7) 38 (64.4)
80 + 7 3 10 2 (28.6) 2 (66.7) 4 (40.0)
Total 590 588 202 (24.9) 307 (4.3) 509 (33.3)

This analysis shows significant gender differences with higher prevalence of metabolic syndrome in females as compared to males (42.3% vs. 24.9%). Table 1 shows the gender-wise prevalence of metabolic syndrome across different age groups. The study also showed significantly higher rates of metabolic syndrome in older age groups. The metabolic syndrome rates do increase from 6.7% in age groups of 20–29 years peaking to 65.6% in age groups of 60–69 years.

Chi-square outputs of significant proportions within several clinical and demographic parameters available to the present study comparing subjects with and without metabolic syndrome are shown in Table 2 Proportionately more subjects with metabolic syndrome (43%) have sedentary lifestyle as compared to those without metabolic syndrome (27.1%). Likewise, proportionately more subjects with inadequate fruit intake (65% vs. 58.3%), general obese (67% vs. 26.2%), centrally obese (83.9% vs. 22.3%), hypertriglyceridemia (67.0% vs. 15.4%), and higher cholesterol levels (34.0% vs. 14.9%) have metabolic syndrome.

Prevalence of individual components of metabolic syndrome

All the individual components of metabolic syndrome increased significantly with age. Overall in our study elevated blood pressure (63.1%) was the commonest abnormality observed and elevated blood sugar (31.2%) was the least common. Low HDL (84.5%) was the commonest abnormality among females, followed by elevated blood pressure (56.8%) and elevated blood sugar (28.9%) was the least common abnormality. Among males, elevated blood pressure (69.3%) was the commonest abnormality, followed by central obesity (41.9%). Low HDL (9.5 %) was the least common abnormality among males. Those aged 45–64 years are more than four and half times and those above 65 years have five-fold increased risk of metabolic syndrome.

Hospital Facilities in Chennai and India
Number of Hospitals in India
Public: 25778
Private: 43487
Total: 69265
Number of Medical Colleges in India (Gov/Private)
Medical colleges in India: 558
Ayurveda 393
homeopathy 221
Total: 1172
Number of Medical Colleges in Tamil Nadu & India (Gov/Private)
Tamil nadu Gov -32 / PVT - 80 Total - 112
Chennai Gov - 8 / PVT - 22 Total - 30
Health and Wellness Centres over 75,500
e-Hospitals 420

Life Science Association list in India: 19 Life science associations in India for Cardiology and Diabetology. Those are..

Indian Heart Rhythm Society: IHRS
Cardiological Society Of India
Indian Association of Clinical Cardiologists
Indian Heart Association
Indian Society Of Cardiology
Indian Association of Cardiac Imaging: IACI
Pediatric Cardiac Society of India
Clinical Cardio-Diabetology Society Of India
Indian Society of Hypertension
Society for Heart Failure and Transplantation
Indian Association of Cardiovascular-Thoracic Surge
National Intervention Council Cardilogical Society of India
UP Chapter of the Cardiological Society of India
Indian Society of Electrocardiology
Indian Association of Pathologists and Microbiologists
Indian Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Endocrinology
Diabetes Association of India
International Association of Endocrine Surgeons
Association of Thoracic and Vascular Surgeons of India