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Statin therapy

Thrombolytic therapy

Cardiac rehabilitation

3-D imaging

Wearable technologies

Wireless technologies and biosensors

Percutaneous mitral valve repair devices

3-D bioprinting

Atherosclerosis is a multi-factorial condition with elements of inflammatory, autoimmune, lipid, and vascular biology. We plan to question current dogmas about atherosclerosis progression, learn about new molecules and cellular pathways that play a role in atherosclerosis development, discuss how to use new high-dimensional methods to study cellular and molecular components of the atherosclerotic plaque, and identify and discuss new clinical targets – all while on the go. Sessions on vascular biology, dyslipidaemia, innate and adaptive immunity, noncoding RNAs, and novel and to learn more on molecular and cellular insights and therapeutic approaches in atherosclerosis.

Diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD) have a complex and multifactorial pathophysiology. Understanding these complex disease mechanisms may aid clinicians in detecting and treating CVD in diabetic patients, as well as assisting patients in avoiding these potentially fatal complications. Diabetes is a major risk factor for heart disease and stroke. Retinopathy and nephropathy, peripheral vascular disease (PVD), stroke, and coronary artery disease are all examples of vascular disorders (CAD). Diabetes affects the heart muscle as well, resulting in systolic and diastolic heart failure. Through treating dyslipidaemia and hypertension, as well as improving glycaemic management, health care professionals are also focusing on lowering cardiovascular risk in diabetic patients.

Glycemic control

Obesity

Dyslipidaemia

Hypertension

Oxidative stress

Epigenetics

Inflammatory cascade, atherosclerosis

Endothelial dysfunction

Cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy

Diet plays a major role in the development of coronary heart disease. Obesity, high blood pressure, uncontrolled diabetes, and a saturated fat-rich diet are all food-related risk factors. A diet high in fibre, low in saturated fat, and high in plant foods can significantly lower the risk of heart disease. A broad body of epidemiologic evidence indicates that consuming a diet rich in plant foods, such as fruits, vegetables, nuts, beans, whole grains, legumes, and soy products, is related to a lower risk of death, cardiovascular disease, and type 2 diabetes

This session encourages breakthrough therapies and diagnostic tests, driven by a compelling need to study the underlying causes of cardiovascular disease and to create new methods of prevention and treatment. Focuses on advancing innovative therapeutics and novel diagnostics to prevent and treat cardiovascular disease. Artificial intelligence (AI) in cardiovascular imaging and in vitro diagnostics (IVD) at the point-of-care (POC) are the key technologies for detecting CVD. Since imaging technologies have not progressed dramatically in a long time, AI in imaging is addressed rather than imaging in general. The incorporation of AI into these systems is the latest point of concern in terms of innovation.

Lab-on-a-chip (LOAC), electrochemical test strips, lateral flow assays (LFAs), and molecular diagnostics are the four main types of IVD POC tests covered in the IVD portion (MDx). The regulation of cardiac rhythm and the generation of cardiovascular tissue are two latest developments in the treatment of CVD. The devices for cardiac rhythm control and heart failure, as well as tissue engineering and 3D bioprinting, are covered in the session.

Cardiac nursing is concerned with the prevention and treatment of heart-related illnesses. Nurses in the cardiac department operate in both inpatient and outpatient environments, caring for medical and surgical patients and helping them understand and treat chronic disease. Under the supervision of a cardiologist, cardiac nurses assist in the treatment of conditions such as unstable angina, arterial heart disease, congestive coronary failure, myocardial infarction, and cardiac dysrhythmia. On a surgical unit, they provide outstanding treatment by analysing examinations, cardiac testing, vascular monitoring, and health assessments.

Cardiac nurses are certified in both Basic and Advanced Cardiac Life Support. In addition, cardiac nurses have specialised expertise such as monitoring electrocardiogram, defibrillation, and continuous drip drug administration. Coronary treatment units, cardiac catheterization, emergency care units, operating theatres, cardiac rehabilitation centres, clinical testing, cardiac surgery wards, cardiovascular intensive care units, and cardiac medical wards are all places where cardiac nurses operate.

Despite continual developments in health care, the mortality CVD has plateaued in recent years and appears to be on the rise. Obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus, which are major contributors to CVD morbidity and mortality, are caused by a poor diet. While dietary modification is an important part of CVD prevention, it is difficult to incorporate in clinical practise due to a lack of structured nutrition science training.

Nutritional therapy is an important part of both primary and secondary treatment of hyperlipidaemia, hypertension, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. Even in those with a high genetic risk of obesity, balanced diet strategies are important for weight loss and avoiding metabolic syndrome. As a result, physicians must be familiar with the clinical evidence that supports balanced dietary guidelines, and they must provide tailored counselling based on their patients' comorbid conditions, health awareness, and financial constraints.

Renal dysfunction is one of the most common comorbidities in heart failure. A lower estimated glomerular filtration rate is a strong indicator of cardiovascular death and complications. Worsening heart failure or acute decompensated heart failure, on the other hand, may hasten the degradation of renal function, a disorder known as cardiorenal syndrome. Hypertension, diabetes, elderly age, and a history of heart or renal failure are all risk factors. Intrarenal hemodynamic, trans renal perfusion strain, and systemic neurohormonal factors all play a role in the pathophysiology of the cardiorenal syndrome.

Diabetes and metabolic disorders are becoming a greater global health care problem. Diabetes treatment needs a more successful strategy than simply reducing blood glucose levels, since it is linked to a significantly increased risk of developing atherosclerosis, kidney failure, and death from myocardial infarction or stroke. This session summarizes the evidence for the cardioprotective benefits induced by antidiabetic agents, including sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor (SGLT2i) and glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist (GLP1-RA), along with sometimes conversely discussed effects of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor (DPP4i) and metformin in patients with high cardiovascular risk with or without type 2 diabetes.

Weight loss is the first line of defence in the fight against obesity and the prevention of cardiometabolic disease. The foundation of obesity prevention and recovery is dietary improvements, which include calorie reductions of 500 to 1000 calories a day, as well as increased physical activity and changes in health habits. However, weight-loss-related behavioural changes can be difficult to maintain, and short-term gains are often not converted into long-term behavioural changes. Weight reduction, whether alone or in combination with antihypertensive medications, has been shown in hypertension treatment trials to boost blood pressure control and heart rate, and thus can play a role in the management of hypertension in overweight and obese patients.

Weight loss has also been shown to improve glycaemic regulation, lower total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and triglycerides, and boost HDL cholesterol, all of which are modifiable cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors. Furthermore, increased physical activity (PA) lowers the risk of atherosclerosis, acute cardiovascular events, stroke, and type 2 diabetes.

Intensive insulin therapy and daily blood glucose self-monitoring (SMBG) have been established as pillars of diabetes care. Many people with type 1 diabetes (T1D) have trouble maintaining glycaemic regulation. The way these tenets of care are carried out has changed dramatically thanks to technological advancements. Multiple regular injections and SMBG may be replaced with continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) pumps and continuous glucose monitoring (CGM).

We study CSII, CGM, and various degrees of convergence between these two treatments, ranging from low glucose suspension systems to hybrid closed loop insulin delivery. The various tools are discussed, as well as their effect on glycaemic control and a guide for integrating them into paediatric clinical practise. While a cure for T1D is still a long way off, technology has the potential to keep youth with T1D in better control and reduce the burden of this chronic medical condition.

Nuclear cardiology is one of the most common forms of nuclear medicine. Single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) tests of myocardial perfusion have been critical in the treatment of coronary artery diseases. PET has also been considered an effective method for assessing myocardial viability and perfusion. However, the recent advancement of computed tomography (CT)/magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technology, as well as growing concerns about patient radiation exposure, pose significant challenges for nuclear cardiology.

In response to these challenges, significant advancements, and developments in the field of myocardial perfusion imaging software and hardware are currently being made. Furthermore, due to its unique capability of estimating absolute myocardial blood flow, myocardial perfusion positron emission tomography (PET) is gaining popularity. The use of F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) and F-18 sodium fluoride (NaF) in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases has uncovered new knowledge regarding the pathophysiology of ischemic heart disease.

In the future, PET/MRI continues to hold a lot of promise for nuclear cardiology. Several nuclear imaging techniques are useful in evaluating restrictive diseases like cardiac sarcoidosis and amyloidosis. If more collaborative efforts are dedicated to this promising area of nuclear medicine, the existing problems of nuclear cardiology will become opportunities.

CVD is now the world's leading cause of death. Traditional CVD risk factors such as age, hypercholesterolemia, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and smoking have all been identified, which has enhanced primary CVD prevention. However, total mortality from cardiovascular disease continues to rise. B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP), N-terminal prohormone BNP (NT-proBNP), troponin, C-reactive protein (CRP), myeloperoxidase (MPO), lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2, fibrinogen, TMAO, and cystatin C are only a few of the new biomarkers that have been discovered as a result of further scientific advancements. BNP and NT-pro BNP have been shown to be useful in the diagnosis of heart failure and/or exacerbation of heart failure.

Troponin is a cardiac biomarker that has been used to diagnose and risk stratify patients with suspected acute coronary syndrome. High sensitivity CRP levels in the blood have been used to measure the risk of CVD, heart attack, and stroke. The discovery of novel biomarkers that can enhance CVD risk prediction, track disease progression, and potentially be used as therapeutic targets before clinical signs and symptoms occur remains a huge challenge for scientists and clinicians.

COVID-19 exposes unforeseen cardiovascular vulnerabilities and highlights the need to enhance cardiometabolic health. COVID-19 investigates four cardiometabolic drivers: abnormal adiposity, dysglycemia, dyslipidaemia, and hypertension. Despite social distancing constraints, specific recommendations are made for lifestyle change and pharmacotherapy, especially for those with diabetes. In the face of hypercytokinemia and possible islet cell damage, inpatient guidelines stress the cautious and exclusive use of insulin to prevent hyperglycaemia.

Gaps in research, expertise, and experience are examined to inspire prompt action. An evolving model of COVID-related cardiometabolic syndrome is presented, encompassing events before, during, and after the acute period, to direct preventive measures and enhance overall cardiometabolic health, reducing the danger of potential viral pandemics.